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Adult Length 50 to 80 inches, nose to tail, depending on sex, availability of food, and genetics.
Adult Weight  Males: 125 to 500 pounds common, depending upon age, season, and food. Record: 816 pounds;
Females: 90 to 300 pounds common. Record: 454 pounds; Captive bears may exceed these weights.
Black Bear Intelligence One of the more intelligent mammals. Can generalize to the simple concept level. Long-term memory excellent. Heaviest brain, relative to body length, of any land carnivore.
Age at Reproduction of 1st Cubs  Generally 3 years but can be 2 to 8 years, depending upon food supply.
Colour Body fur black, brown, cinnamon, blonde, or rarely white. Brown muzzle. White chest fairly common in Ontario. Eyes brown (blue at birth). Skin light gray.
Estimated Number of
Black Bears in Ontario
75,000-100,000
Cubs Birth Month January.
Cubs Birth Weight 250 to 500 grams (1/2 to 1 pound)
Cubs Weight at 1 year  7 kg (15 pounds) to more than 60kg (100 pounds), depending upon food supply.
Cub Litter Size 2 to 4 cubs is normal depending on maturity and health of the female bear at time of implantation. Record is 6 cubs.
Daily Activity Period Typically 1/2 hour before sunrise to 1 to 2 hours after sunset. May become nocturnal to avoid people.
Hibernation  In Ontario, 2 to 7 months depending upon latitude and food supply.
Identification of Nursing Female Black Bears Obvious breast development and small cubs are generally in very close approximate.
Interval Between Litters 2 to 4 years, depending upon food supply. May reproduce in consecutive years if a litter dies before the mating season.
Life Span 21 - 33 years or more
Habitat Forest areas with a variety of fruit- and nut-producing species. Forest openings promote fruiting of many shrub species. Lowlands and wetlands are important sources of succulent vegetation. Streams and pools are needed for drinking and cooling. Larger trees as refuges for spring cubs.
Home Range Area Diameter Yearlings: 2-4 km (1-2 miles). Adult females: 4-10 km (2-6 miles). Adult males: 15-30 km (8-15 miles). Excursions over 200 km (125 miles).
Mating Season Late May to early July. Occasionally longer.
Mortality Causes - Adults
(2 years or older)
Hunting, road kills, and other human-related causes. Starvation. Fights or predation by larger Black Bears. Unsuccessful predation on large animals. Very few Black Bears die of disease
Mortality Cause - Cubs and yearlings Starvation, predation, falls from trees, road-kills, etc. Predation by other Black Bears. Predation by other animals. Few bears die of disease.
Parental Care 17 months (rarely 29 months), ending in June when mothers become ready to mate again.
Preferred Foods Fruit, nuts, acorns, insects, succulent greens, and meat. Less preferred foods may cause weight loss.
Running Speed Lean Black Bears may exceed 45 km/hour (30 miles/hour). Runs well down hill or up hill. Climbing speed in trees is also very fast.
Fat Bears tire and overheat quickly.
Senses-Hearing Exceeds human frequency range and sensitivity.
Senses-Smell One hundred times more nasal mucosa area than a human. Smelling ability is extremely good. Approximately 5 times more sensitive than dogs but the limits of Black Bears' sense of smell have not been tested.
Senses-Vision Color vision. Good near vision. Untested distance vision.
Sex Ratio Nearly even at birth. Mature bears: 1 male per 2-5 females.
Sounds Grunts, loud blowing, and a resonant "voice." Does not threaten by growling. Stress or threat sound is is like a stuttering cry
Swimming Distance At least 3km (1.5 miles)
Number of people in Ontario recorded killed by black bears since 1916 Seven 
Famous Black Bears Smokey the Bear, Winnie the Pooh (Originally a resident of White River Ontario) , the teddy bear

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www.OntarioBlackBears.com
Black Bear Picture Link to Home Page
Ontario
Black Bears
Black Bear
Facts

VIDEO
Nursing Mother
Black Bear
Toronto Star
Editorial
 
Black Bear
Politics
Spring
Bear Hunt
NOTO Black Bear
Bulletin Board
WHY?

Black Bear Facts

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